As a general rule, points in a circuit that are electrically common to each other should never have voltage between them. This chapter discusses the basic troubleshooting techniques used in electrical circuits. However, don’t dismiss this information just because it doesn’t lead you straight to the problem—look for other changes in the system as a whole as a result of the swap, and try to figure out what these changes tell you about the source of the problem. It is not enough to merely tell students what they should do in troubleshooting, or to give them easy-to-follow steps. 2 The following circuit has a problem. Of course, this means the lamp will not turn on, no matter what is done with the switch. P = VI = (120 V)(15 A) = 1,800 W. Total power in a parallel circuit is the sum of the power consumed on the individual branches. The problem happened to be a “weak” ignition coil, and it only manifested itself under heavy load (a condition that could not be simulated in my garage). Some measurements given definite answers, while others only indefinite answers. A circuit breaker in series before the parallel branches can prevent overloads by automatically opening the circuit. Identify which of these are true statements: Only two out of the four given statements are true: For those having difficultly understanding this, test the following statements for truth. This tells you that the components you just swapped are somehow different (different calibration, different function), and nothing more. To âdivide the circuit in halfâ again, measure voltage between points B and G. Some troubleshooters refer to this strategy as âdivide and conquer,â because it divides the possibilities of fault location by a factor of 2 with each step. Itâs pretty obvious that if you need to be good at circuit â¦ Between two points that are not electrically common to each other, there is guaranteed to be voltage. The contrapositive of this rule, however, is a valuable troubleshooting tool: if there is substantial voltage measured between two points in a circuit, then we know without a doubt that those two points are not electrically common to each other! Suppose this battery and light bulb circuit failed to work: Using a voltmeter, a technician measures full battery voltage between the points C and H. What does this single measurement indicate about the condition of the circuit? DMM (digital multi-meter) – If you do not have one get one and learn how to use it. Explain why. General troubleshooting guide for electric circuit. Fundamental Electrical Troubleshooting test and training software tool is designed for industrial electrical wiring troubleshooting and testing, but can be used to residentail and commercial electricians too. We have been learning about some interesting facts and circuits related to digital electronics such as ghost detection circuit, basic tube-light circuit, DC to DC charger and so forth. To âdivide the circuit in halfâ again, measure voltage between points D and I. When troubleshooting even low-voltage circuits, practice all safety techniques. If neither swap (the speakers nor the cables) causes the problem to change sides from left to right, then the problem must lie within the amplifier (i.e. Due to the increasing complexity of electronic communications equipment, the technician must have a good understanding of communication circuits â¦ Explain why or why not. Identify the source of the problem. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. I have found that the concept of electrically common points is most helpful when students first learn to relate voltage drop with continuity (breaks or non-breaks) in a circuit. Based on this one measurement, we are able to determine that the battery is outputting full voltage, and that the circuit wiring is continuous from the negative battery terminal to point C, and from the positive battery terminal to point H. The fault is an Ã¶penâ somewhere to the right of points C and H - possibly more than one. Suppose you were instructed to check the continuity of the switch (SW1) mounted on the printed circuit board. With the filament burned open, the only voltage measurement that will change in the circuit is the voltage across the switch when it is in the OFF state. Fig. Identify the source of the problem using available data and analytical tools to isolate the defective â¦ Troubleshooting electronic circuits has tips that can help you find the answer to some of the problems that you will encounter when troubleshooting electronic units. Don't have an AAC account? To expertly troubleshoot electrical equipment, problems must be solved by replacing only defective equipment or components in the least amount of time. In other words, which of these faults are possible, and which are not possible, given the symptoms exhibited by the circuit? Here are a few: In a system with identical or parallel subsystems, swap components between those subsystems and see whether or not the problem moves with the swapped component. I was once able to troubleshoot an elusive problem with an automotive engine ignition system using this method: I happened to have a friend with an automobile sharing the exact same model of ignition system. What to do: Many modern digital multimeters are equipped with “record” settings, whereby they can monitor a voltage, current, or resistance over time and note whether that measurement deviates substantially from a regular value. In this case, the measurement tells us that a definite problem exists in one half of the circuit. Using Kirchhoffâs laws, you can simplify a network of resistors using a single equivalent resistor. the speaker formerly silent is now producing sound after having been moved to the other side of the room and connected to the other cable), then you know the speakers are fine, and the problem must lie somewhere else (perhaps in the cable connecting the silent speaker to the amplifier, or in the amplifier itself). 1.2 Common Troubleshooting Techniques. Consider each of these hypothetical faults one at a time (no multiple, simultaneous faults): Follow-up question: if we allow ourselves to consider more than one fault occurring at the same time, does the âswitch failed shortedâ scenario become possible? In this battery-switch-lamp circuit, the metal filament wire inside the lamp has burned up, so that it no longer forms an electrically continuous connection. Troubleshooting Control Circuits Because the wiring and the inputs and outputs (I/Os) are the most vulnerable elements in a system, be sure to locate and identify these elements in the problem circuit. Simply by looking at the panel after the fact, there was no way to tell which signal shut the turbine down, but the videotape playback would show what happened in sequence, down to a frame-by-frame time resolution. Swapping the failed component with a good component will cause the good component to fail as well. The integrated circuits troubleshooting guide highlights various techniques to assist with application problem-solving, debugging and datasheet measurements across all TI products. What to do: Divide the circuitry into stages: tuning stage, mixing stages, amplifier stage, all the way through to the speaker(s). Solving circuits is one of the most challenging tasks for the undergraduate student as it involves numerous theorems, concepts, and processes for solving the circuits. To conduct the tests, break the motor connections and test first in one direction (the motor) and then in the other (the supply). PCB Troubleshooting Tips & Techniques – A Complete Guide Syed Saad Hasan 1,619 views 2 months ago Generally speaking, PCBs or Printed Circuit boards are a complex mass of insulators and copper traces that connect dense components to create a modern circuit. Confidence is the first and most prominent task to solve the circuit problems. The presence of absence of voltage between these two points will indicate whether the problem lies between those points and the battery, or between those points and the light bulb (assuming there is but a single problem in the circuit - a large assumption!). I used to offer email and phone advice from here, but now that I've retired, you'll have to rely on this did-it-myself website to fix your problem, as over 13 million have since 2004. Troubleshooting electrical wiring is best performed by electricians who understand the fundamentals of electricity and have experience installing home electrical circuit wiring. Troubleshooting Electrical Circuits (TEC) is our foundational electrical troubleshooting simulation.Your professionals will learn to diagnose and repair a variety of faults in a simulated electrical circuit consisting of wiring, lights, relays, switches and pushbuttons. As a general rule, the technique of swapping identical components should be used only when there is minimal chance of causing additional damage. Here, your learners will master troubleshooting procedures and techniques before advancing to the circuit faults in the Troubleshooting Simulations. Learn skill, practice and develop effective troubleshooting techniques for PLC systems. A circuit like this is very easy to construct, and makes for an excellent classroom demonstration piece. Well, you could reconnect the op-amp as a basic comparator and see if its responsive to differential input voltages, and/or connect it as a voltage follower (buffer) and see if it outputs the same analog voltage as what is input. Learn skill, practice and develop effective troubleshooting techniques for PLC systems. If the speakers have been verified as good, then you could check the cables using the same method. Electrical commonality is just one way that two points can have zero voltage between them, not the only way! Switch #1 is able to control lamp #1, but lamp #2 never comes on no matter what is done with switch #2: Follow-up question: if we allow ourselves to consider more than one fault occurring at the same time, which of these scenarios becomes possible? Normally, this type of problem could only be pinpointed using an ignition system analyzer (or oscilloscope) and a dynamometer to simulate loaded driving conditions. Unfortunately, the problem never manifests itself while you’re watching it! Det er gratis at tilmelde sig og byde på jobs. Sometimes, the only way to test a circuit is to see how the system reacts to a manual input. Fortunately, electrical circuit troubleshooting is an activity that works well for small groups of students to engage in as well as individual students. There are several strategies which may be employed to find the location of the problem in this circuit. Many circuits are similar to it, and it provides good starting point to explain some of the points to note. This eliminates several portions of the circuit as being problematic. Analog VOM (volt-ohmmeter) – also very useful Troubleshooting Techniques. Ideally, the builder would check the proper operation of components along the way through the construction process: start and tune the engine before its connected to the drivetrain, check for wiring problems before all the cover panels are put in place, check the brake system in the driveway before taking it out on the road, etc. There is often more than one way to perform a certain check of component function, if you are knowledgeable in electrical theory and creative in your use of test equipment! Without this skill, you will waste a lot of time looking for unlikely faults, thereby wasting time. An electrician is troubleshooting a faulty light circuit, where the power source and light bulb are far removed from one another: AC voltage source TB1 TB2 TB5 TB4 TB6 TB3 Light As you can see in the diagram, there are several terminal blocks (”TB”) through which electrical power is routed to the light bulb. If it doesn’t, investigate further AC electrical damage. Techniques used for troubleshooting were This is an invaluable tool for use in “intermittent” electronic system failures. and how a corroded electrical connection is usually not equivalent to a complete âopenâ break in a circuit. Create one now. Many fast systems (especially shutdown “trip” systems) have a “first out” monitoring capability to provide this kind of data. PCB Troubleshooting Techniques Visual Inspection. One of the most important factors â¦ Master PLC circuit troubleshooting with continual training in safe environments. the left channel output must be “dead”). Be as specific as you can. For automotive applications, unhook the negative terminal of the battery to remove power. When doing circuit analysis, you need to know some essential laws, electrical quantities, relationships, and theorems. Using a voltmeter, a technician measures 0 volts between the points C and H. The result of this single measurement indicates which half of the circuit there is a definite problem in. While you may need to troubleshoot a circuit that used to work and now doesn’t, the emphasis here is how to troubleshoot a design when you have your first PCB made. If it does, you’ve just swapped the faulty component; if it doesn’t, keep searching. The circuit below is a typical basic transistor circuit. If you can eliminate the problem by unplugging a single appliance, then that appliance might be defective. Challenge your students to think of other methods which could be used to check the switchâs continuity. The AC trips the circuit breaker 5. coil). What to do: Exchange these identical components, one at a time, Y axis and either one of the working axes (X or Z), and see after each swap whether or not the problem has moved with the swap. Troubleshooting Electrical Circuits (TEC) is our foundational electrical troubleshooting simulation.Your professionals will learn to diagnose and repair a variety of faults in a simulated electrical circuit consisting of wiring, lights, relays, switches and pushbuttons. It is one of the most comfortable and most effective PCB troubleshooting techniques. If you find that unplugging almost any appliance solves the problem, then the circuit may simply be overloaded by too many appliances, neither of them defective. Motor and Motor Control Troubleshooting Techniques. Continue testing sections of the circuit (or just test points within the circuit) to see if you measure the expected voltages and currents. Troubleshooting An Open Circuit Faults in the Control Circuit (photo credit: lpmanagementservices.com) This general troubleshooting procedure is designed to start in the middle of the problem area and give us the best idea which direction to go. Some troubleshooters refer to this strategy as âdivide and conquer,â because it divides the possibilities of fault location by a factor of 2 with each step. This circuit provides an excellent opportunity to discuss the concept of âelectrically commonâ points. Introduction to Electronics Troubleshooting Techniques. Troubleshooting electrical equipment is a dangerous and complex process. Believe that you can solve the problems, then, ultimately, the formulas, information and ideas will come to your mind. Take the example of the analog summer circuit in the previous section for example: what if it wasn’t working properly? Newly developed PCBs have high pitch parts in which most of the parts are unidentified, on testable and more they involve complex troubleshooting and repairing techniques. When the switch is closed, the lamp does not turn on: Identify which of these hypothetical faults could account for this problem, and which could not account for the problem. Knowing that there is voltage between these two terminals proves there is good continuity from TB2-3 to TB1-3, through the switch, and all the way back to the power supply. The following circuit has a problem. This paper presents Lean Six Sigma techniques and methods that Electrical Engineering Technology (EET) students have found useful in their in-class circuit troubleshooting activities.When students are first learning circuit analysis and fabrication, they often lack the skills totroubleshoot failed circuits based on a specification. Generally, any basic circuit that has a load and energy source has circuit paths where current flows in a closed circuit between two electrically unequal potential points. Did you use the recommended configuration for your application that is sometimes specified in the datasheet? IC Failure Analysis Techniques & Troubleshooting Abstract: When troubleshooting a complex device, knowledge is king. I will let you determine which points in the circuit you may measure switch voltage between. With a 12 volt power source connected to the load, the meter should read a Determine if the light bulb will de-energize for each of the following breaks in the circuit. In other words, the filament has failed âopen.â. Any points in a circuit directly connected together with wire are considered âelectrically commonâ to each other: a voltage measurement referenced at any one of those points should be identical if referenced any of the other points as well. Electrical Circuit Analysis > Parallel DC Circuits. A âvirtualâ troubleshooting exercise such as this one is a good way to start students thinking in the right ways to becoming effective troubleshooters. Between two points that are electrically common to each other, there is guaranteed to be zero voltage. Swap the cables so that each one now connects to the other channel of the amplifier and to the other speaker. Built in videos to to learn about PLCs, their circuits and the PLC simulator. Another example to illustrate this caveat is the ignition system problem previously mentioned. Use Troubleshooting Tools. As a result of this, the good fuse that you move to the shorted circuit blows as well, leaving you with two blown fuses and two non-working circuits. Expected voltage readings when testing a transistor circuit with a multimeter . A circuit diagram is the most important document for the technician. In this circuit, where would you not expect to measure significant voltage (between what pairs of test points)? In actuality, the presence of voltage between these two points proves that not only is the power supply functioning properly, but both wires between the power supply and terminals TB1-1 and TB2-1 have good continuity, and the connections between the wires and their respective terminals are good as well. How to Troubleshoot like an Expert- A Systematic Approach. 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