The Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition was a joint Tejanos-US volunteers expedition formed in Louisiana for Texas independence but was defeated in the Battle of Medina. Spanish missionaries soon began to Guatemala to convert the native indigenous people to Catholicism. From that time until 1944, it was governed by a series of dictatorships until its first civilian president, Juan José Arevalo, was elected and promised to bring democratic political reform. Guatemala, along with El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica formed the Federal Republic of Central America (with the exception of the Guatemala province of Chiapas which choose to remain part of Mexico in July 1824). It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and its northernmost part was transferred to Honduras in … The region of Guatemala was a large and important state under the control of the Viceroy of New Spain (Mexico) until the time of independence. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. … At the time the protesters entered, the Spanish Ambassador, Máximo Cajal López was meeting with former Guatemalan Vice-President Eduardo Rafael Cáceres Lehnhoff at the embassy.. Elections were dispensed with in 1854, when the presidency was conferred upon him for life.  In 1525, Spanish conquistador of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés arrived to Petén to subdue the rebellious Cristóbal de Olid who had been sent to conquer Honduras. The Spaniards, with help of indigenous allies and troops from Mexico, began to slowly conquer the peoples of Guatemala. Four other countries also declared their independence on September 15, 1821: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Events leading up to this big anniversary were festive and feverishly prideful. He restored the church to its position of privilege and power and catered to the aristocracy. On arrival to Guatemala, the Spaniards discovered various Maya speaking and Nahua speaking polities within the territory. … The country declared its independence from Spain on September 15, 1821, just three … History of Guatemalan Independence Day. It was annexed by Mexico for a short time but in 1823 Guatemala became part of the United Provinces of Central America with Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Honduras. It broke up completely in 1840. Health conditions were improved, and education was stimulated. Jacobo Arbenz, a military officer who received communist support, was elected to succeed Arévalo and assumed office in March 1951. However the liberals took po… Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811, but a resistance movement continued, which declared independence from Spain in 1813. Both were taken to Herrera Llerandi Hospital for treatment. In 1839 the Central American Federation dissolved and Guatemala became an independent nation. Guatemala–Spain refers to the current and historical relations between Guatemala and Spain. The first century of Guatemala's independence provides a series of four prime examples of the caudíllo as the classic Latin American dictator. As the fire blazed, the police refused to allow volunteers and firefighters to enter the building to save those trapped on the second floor. His paternalistic policies toward the Indians established him as their patron, although his vagrancy law (1934) made workers, especially Indians, liable to periods of forced labour at critical seasons. Following the example of Mexico and its Indigenista (Indigenismo) movement, Arévalo took additional steps to support Guatemalan Indians, which included encouraging indigenous leaders to organize in campesino leagues to defend their interests. In 1523, Pedro de Alvarado, a member of Hernán Cortés’ group that conquered Mexico, was sent to conquer the area of land below Mexico that is known today as Guatemala.  Guatemala's main exports to Spain include: tuna, shrimp, zinc, sugar, rum and coffee. Guatemala would proclaim itself independent of Spain, along with other Latin American countries, in 1821. The fight for Argentine Independence was led by José de San Martín, an Argentine native who had been trained as a military officer in Spain.In 1817, he crossed the Andes into Chile, where Bernardo O'Higgins and his rebel army had been fighting the Spanish to a draw since 1810. Ubico’s administration dramatized the degree to which liberal thought had lost its idealism and was concerned principally with material progress. However, the road to independence was not easy. After the fall of Estrada Cabrera, the presidency was held by a series of short-term rulers who continued to rule in behalf of the coffee elite. Five Central American countries — Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua — dissolved their ties to Spain and gained their independence on Sept. 15, 1821. In March 1697, the Spanish fully conquered all of Guatemala for the Spanish crown after the conquest of Petén. , In September 1984, Guatemala and Spain re-established diplomatic relations. The first is Rafael Carrera, an illiterate mestizo who with the support of the Indians and the rural clergy topples in 1840 the liberal government of Francisco Morazán. On September 15th, Guatemala and the other Central American countries – Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua – celebrate their independence as an independent country from Spain. 1839 Guatemala gains full independence. Manuel Estrada Cabrera then became provisional president, regularized his status by an election, and by repeated reelections maintained himself in power until leaders of the opposition Unionist Party forced him from office by having the assembly declare him insane (1920). Following independence from Spain (1821) and Mexico (1823), Guatemala was the political centre of the United Provinces of Central America. , In March 1823, Iturbide resigned as Emperor and Mexico became a republic. Following a military coup in 1931, Gen. Jorge Ubico was elected president without opposition and began the fourth of Guatemala’s extended dictatorships. Guatemalan President Fernando Romeo Lucas Garcia and police and government officials immediately met at the National Palace and decided to remove the protesters by force from the embassy. 1873-1885. Barrios also took steps to professionalize the Guatemala military. Arévalo was not friendly to their activities, but his nationalistic bent gave them opportunity to establish themselves as his most enthusiastic and reliable supporters. Carrera, who enjoyed support from Indians as well as from conservative estate owners, returned Guatemala to a regime similar to that of the colonial period. During the commotion, a fire broke out on the second floor of the embassy. In December 1941, with pressure and promises of economic aid from the United States, Ubico’s government declared war on Japan, Germany, and Italy. After winning its independence from Spain in 1821, Guatemala briefly became part of Mexico and later a member of the United Provinces of Central America. The Captaincy General of Guatemala became part of New Spain and was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain based in Mexico City. Independence Day in Guatemala commemorates the independence of the Central American provinces from Spanish rule on this day in 1821. Even so, Guatemalan independence was the result of external influences. Guatemala declared its own independence from Spain on 15 September 1821 and chose to join the Mexican Empire under Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. On 2 February 1980, Spain severed diplomatic relations with Guatemala over the incident at the embassy and the threat on its diplomatic staff. Cortés soon returned to New Spain after the battles. , In 1808, Joseph Bonaparte was installed as King of Spain and several Spanish American colonies began to declare their independence from Spain. The week before September 15th, people all over my town of La Antigua, where I was studying Spanish, wore blue and white, the colours of Guatemala. In 1821 a congress of Central American Criollos in Guatemala City composed the Act of Independence of Central America to declare the region's independence from Spain, effective on 15 September of that year. Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808 and instituted a liberal constitution in 1812; a feeling of reform rushed through the Spanish colonies. The first and major battles involved the K'iche' people who were defeated in March 1524 and resulted in the capture and sacking of the K'iche' capital of Q'umarkaj. As Guatemala and most Central American nations were governed by Mexico City; New Spain declared its independence from Spain in 1810. In 1859 he failed to get Britain to follow through on a treaty defining the status and boundaries of British Honduras, an issue that remained unsettled even after British Honduras became independent as Belize. Chief among them was th… The Spanish Ambassador met with the protesters and announced to the government that they hope for a peaceful negotiation to take place. Arbenz made agrarian reform the central project of his administration, signaling a turn to the political left. A favourable labour code was enacted, and a social security system that promised progressive extension of benefits was inaugurated. In the 1830s a liberal regime ruled Guatemala but in 1839 an uprising took place and a man named Rafael Carrera came to power. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) began efforts to destabilize the regime and recruited a force of Guatemalan exiles in Honduras, which was led by the exiled Col. Carlos Castillo Armas. During his motorcycle tours of the country or in his office, he listened to their complaints and dispensed immediate “justice.” This relationship deluded Ubico (called Tata, “Father”) into stating that Guatemala no longer had an Indian problem. Guatemala's new president modernizes the country, develops the army, and introduces coffee growing, which becomes one of its largest exports. However, he was killed at the Battle of Chalchuapa (1885), and the movement collapsed. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821. Honduran lawyer and scholar José Cecilio del Valle, promptly attempted to integrate Guatemala into the Mexican Empire in January 1822. 1989. Independence (1808–23) Despite revitalization of the colonial economy and of Spanish military strength under the Bourbons, the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic Wars brought disintegration to Spain’s empire. Guatemala declared itself a sovereign republic in 1847 following decades in fighting. The National Congress passed a measure providing for the expropriation of unused portions of landholdings in excess of a specified acreage and for the distribution of the land among landless peasants. He was an ardent exponent of a Central American union, and, when political means failed to produce results, he invaded El Salvador in order to force it to join the union. Guatemala became independent of Spain in 1821. The relationship didn’t last long, and in 1823, the same countries declared independence from Mexico and formed the Federal Republic of Central America. Guatemala Independence Day September 15 This is the day on which Guatemala won its independence from Spain in 1821. The changes introduced by the liberal regime were swept away. There are direct flights between Guatemala and Spain with the following airlines: Iberia and Wamos Air. , In the early morning of 31 January 1980, a group of Guatemalan peasants from the Committee for Peasant Unity, joined by workers and students, entered the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala City.  In 1960, Guatemala entered into a civil war between the government and various leftist rebel groups supported chiefly by ethnic Maya indigenous people and Ladino peasants. He was succeeded by José María Reina Barrios, a nephew of “the Reformer,” who was elected in 1892 and assassinated in 1898. The principal factor in the collapse of the federation was the backcountry uprising in Guatemala led by Rafael Carrera, who established himself as the military arbiter of the state (1838) and, from the executive’s chair or from behind it, controlled policy until his death in 1865. Guatemala and Central America are celebrating 199 years of independence from Spain. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. That date is still marked as independence day by most Central American nations. As the native Spanish and mestizos threw off European domination with the slogans and banners of the French Revolution, they neither considered the Indians nor involved them in … With the approval of the assembly, Barrios broke the power of the local aristocracy; brought the church under civil control and confiscated its properties; instituted lay education; promulgated a new constitution (1876); fostered the construction of roads, railways, and telegraph lines; encouraged development by private initiative of Guatemala’s resources; and opened the country to foreign capital. Guatemalan President Alejandro Giammattei wearing a protective face mask as a precaution against the new coronavirus arrives at Constitution square for the independence day celebration in Guatemala City, Monday, Sept. 14, 2020. There were several factors that made the colonies decide to split from Spain: the independence of regions in the north (from England), the French revolution that brought new ideals, the strong control and tax system imposed on the region by the Spanish crown, and the progressive weakening of this same government. Estrada Cabrera persecuted political opponents, disregarded individual rights, muzzled the press, and summarily disposed of his enemies. The protesters announced that they had come to the embassy peacefully and that they would hold a press conference to state their grievances against the Guatemalan government. 37 people died during the fire, including the former Vice-President Cáceres Lehnhoff and Vicente Menchú, father of future Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Rigoberta Menchú, as well protesters and Spanish embassy employees. What is the date that Guatemala became a … Arévalo also pressed the Belize border issue with Britain, subjected foreign enterprises to regulation, and attempted to guarantee Guatemalan labourers larger benefits. The Kingdom of Guatemala suffered hard times resulting from the disruption of Spanish shipping in wartime. Following independence from Spain (1821) and Mexico (1823), Guatemala was the political centre of the United Provinces of Central America. Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Guatemala and the Kingdom of Spain, Burning of the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala, The Sacred Horse of the Last Maya Kingdom, Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Guatemala (in Spanish), Datos sociológicos de la ciudadanía española: Guatemala (in Spanish), Visita de Estado de Sus Majestades los Reyes a Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica y Panamá (in Spanish), Guatemala ex-police chief sentenced over embassy attack, España rompe sus relaciones diplomáticas con Guatemala (in Spanish), Guatemala: Spanish Embassy Massacre Trial Begins, España y Guatemala reanudarán sus relaciones diplomáticas a partir del próximo sábado (in Spanish), El Caso de Genocidio en Guatemala (in Spanish), Embassy of Guatemala in Spain (in Spanish), Embassy of Spain in Guatemala (in Spanish), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guatemala–Spain_relations&oldid=987737859, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 23:03. 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