The removal of sap weakens the plant, causing poor and stunted growth, leaf curling and distorted leaf growth, wilting and reduced resistance to drought conditions, all resulting in yield losses. and Phaseolus spp. Influence of meteorological factors on the infestation of Aphis craccivora Koch in green gram varieties. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 37:93-102. Aphid vectors of Papaya ringspot virus and their weed hosts in orchards in the major papaya producing and exporting region of Brazil. Purnima Das, Dutta SK, 2002. Groundnut varieties resistant to GRV were found in Africa in the early 1950s. Numerical response of ladybird beetles (Col., Coccinellidae) to aphid prey (Hom., Aphididae) in a field bean in north-east India. Journal of the Entomological Research Society. Aphid (Aphididae: Homoptera) vectors of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), bionomics, transmission efficiency and factors contributing to epidemiology. Systematic plant breeding programmes have been in operation since then (Evans, 1954; Mayeux, 1984). Control with insecticides having less impact on natural enemies, which have lower toxicity against coccinellids, may be necessary in integrated pest management programmes. J.]. If infestation lasted 10 days or more, significant reductions in plant growth and respiration resulted. Farmer-participatory evaluation of cowpea integrated pest management (IPM) technologies in Eastern Uganda. Technical Document No. Yield losses of ca 16% were recorded in groundnut in India due to a complex of insect pests, the predominant one being A. craccivora (Jagtap et al., 1984). Indian Journal of Entomology, 50(1):116-122. Venkateswarlu P, Sitaramaiah S, Sreedhar U, Rao SG, Sawant SK, Rao SN, 2003. Honeydew and its predator Coccinella spp. craccivora is probably the most injurious insect species of groundnut throughout Africa (Mayeux, 1984; Attia et al., 1986; Tarimo and Karel, 1987; Wightman and Wightman, 1994). III. Kumar NKK, Singh HS, Kalleshwaraswamy CM, 2010. Patel MB, Srivastava KP, 1989. English, Sichona, J.; CABI, 2020, English language, Ringera, E.; Imari, F.; Otipa, M.; CABI, 2017, English language, Musenga, C.; Mwaba, D.; Kilubi, V.; Bwalya, K.; Mweembe, J.; Siame, B.; Mtawa, M.; Salati, R. K.; Chipuluka, A. C.; Chilala, C.; Ndalamei, D. M.; Muchula, K.; Ntenga, I.; CABI, 2016, English language, Siisii, T. Z.; Moonga, M. K.; CABI, 2015, English language. Its incidence during different years varies with rainfall. A model of cowpea aphid populations in temperate pastures. 41 (2/4), 285-288. and Monomorium indicum associated with the aphid at 90% of the sites examined; their symbiotic influence appeared to work in favour of the aphid. Journal of Arid Legumes. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 63(2a):365-377; 28 ref. Chemical Control Greathead D J, Greathead A H, 1992. In Australia and New Zealand, A. craccivora is an important pest of pasture grasses, largely because it is a vector of SCSV, which causes mild or severe stunting, marginal chlorosis and puckering of leaflets, and stunting and yellowing of new growth (Gutierrez et al., 1974a, b; Ashby et al., 1982). It is suggested that C. carnea should be released in the early stage of the plants, at the first appearance of aphids, to prevent the spread of SbMV (El-Arnaouty et al., 2008). Isha Bhoyer, Koche MD, Santoshi Pudake, Ninawe NB, 2014. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Annals of Applied Biology, 128(2):185-193; 19 ref. 1. A. craccivora is polyphagous, and reservoirs of aphids and associated disease infection can exist on non-crop plants throughout the year.Groundnut rosette virus Viroses of groundnut in Tamil Nadu. Record of Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera : Aphididae) on medicinal crop Mucuna pruriens L. in Chhattisgarh (India). Direct feeding damage caused by inoculation of cowpea with A. craccivora, in a Chinese study, resulted in a reduction in plant height (to 41.9% of the controls), reduction in the green leaf area index from the 7th day after inoculation, and delayed production of harvestable pods by 30 days (Chang and Thrower, 1981). Heie (1986) summarizes the morphological differences between A. craccivora and A. loti. craccivora is a cosmopolitan species with a worldwide distribution; abundant in subtropical and tropical regions, and in the Mediterranean. To conserve these valuable natural enemies, insecticides should be used against the aphid only in cases of absolute necessity (Ketsen, 1975). Observations on host preferences and epidemiology of aphid species associated with legume crops. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 40(4):281-290. GroundnutsA. Studies on the capability of Cheilomenes lunata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to prey on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Nigeria. The effect of, Owolabi AT, Proll E, 2001. It has been reported that GRV resistant varieties from one region in Africa may succumb if grown in another region (Anon., 2000). Distinct disease types have been recognised, dependent on the GRV strains involved: groundnut chlorotic rosette disease, groundnut green rosette disease and groundnut mosaic rosette disease. The close spacing of groundnuts can deter A. craccivora and is also an important cultural factor influencing yield loss (Mayeux, 1984).Indirect Damage Journal of Entomological Research. The sowing date of crops influences A. craccivora direct feeding damage. Reductions in seeds per pod were significantly reduced by aphid infestations of 7 days or more. Two new Pseudephedrus Stary, aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) associated with Nothofagus in South America. Original citation: Halima Kamel & Hamouda, 1998, National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species. 135. Moore A, Miller RH, 2002. Disease reactions and yield performance of peanut genotypes grown under groundnut rosette and rosette-free field environments. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 18(2):325-328. http://www.esbcp.org. In a study on field beans (Vicia faba) in Hungary during 1986 and 1987, A. craccivora was common and of economic importance, with 22.3 aphids/plant on average recorded in 1986. Processes of infection and pathogenesis of Entomophthora fresenii on aphids. A. craccivora is now considered the most important insect pest of groundnuts in Africa because it transmits GRV persistently (Wightman and Wightman, 1994). Infestation at the mature pod stage alone caused relatively little pod shrivelling. This compared with yields of 6.39-11.57 q/ha in plots treated with eight pyrethroid insecticides. Ciência Rural, 41(11):1863-1866. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782011001100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Owolabi AT, Proll E, 2001. The aphid Aphis craccivora (Koch, 1854), is a species whose development is almost entirely anholocyclic and takes place on a single type of plant. Sowing date was found to be an important factor determining the yield of field beans in the Sudan, with seed yield/plant being positively correlated with number of pods and negatively with percentage infection with Sudanese broad bean mosaic virus (SBBMV), which is transmitted by A. craccivora and Acyrthosiphon sesbaniae (Salih et al., 1973). 13 (3), 101-106. http://www.entomol.org. Ahmed AH, El-Sadig EO, 1985. Susceptibility of some mungbean cultivars to aphid infestation with special reference to pod setting and seed yield. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 30(1):65-73, Patro B, Behera MK, 1991. Six aphid species, including A. craccivora, transmitted Bean leafroll virus (BLRV) in a circulative persistent manner on Vicia fabae in Egypt (El-Beshehy and Azza, 2013), and A. craccivora transmitted Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in a non-persistent manner in cowpea in Saudi Arabia (Damiri et al., 2013). Verma S K, 2006. ACIAR Monograph No. Association of an unusual filamentous virus with leaf crinkle disease of urdbean in Himachal Pradesh. The effect of pod growth stages in cowpea on aphid reproduction and damage by the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Homoptera: Aphididae). Proceedings of the Second Regional Groundnut Workshop for Southern Africa Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, 50 India; ICRISAT, 95-102, Tian LX, Yang LF, Gao SG, 1981. Aphid honeydew is a digestive product with a very high sugar content. Chichester, UK: John Wiley. On groundnut, very young rolled up leaves of seedlings should be examined for nymphs early in the season. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Egypt. Nabirye et al. International Arachis Newsletter, No. Germplasms ICG 12988 and ICG 12991 have shown resistance to groundnut rosette disease (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000). A. craccivora transmits BCMV and BYMV in a non-persistent manner (Brunt et al., 1996). Infection with Peanut mottle virus led to a mean yield loss of 20%/plant in Georgia, USA, in 1973 (Kuhn and Demski, 1975). High rainfall is not favourable to A. craccivora populations since aphids do not survive periods of heavy rain. Field evaluation of three entomopathogenic fungi on groundnut pests. In Australia, aphids decrease the grain yield of lupins directly, when large numbers of aphids colonize plants late in the growing season, but mainly cause economic damage via the spread of CMV infection. Malone MT, 1978. A brown necrosis may be induced in groundnuts, for example, while disturbances in fruiting and a reduction in the root system can occur. International Journal of Pest Management, 43(4):307-312; 44 ref. Experimental work is focused on botanical insecticides, e.g. Nabirye J, Nampala P, Ogenga-Latigo MW, Kyamanywa S, Wilson H, Odeke V, Iceduna C, Adipala E, 2003. Cultural ControlMayeux (1984) reviewed crop protection methods in groundnut, including the use of early and dense sowings. Groundnut in China ( Chen et al., 2006 ). )..... Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 61 ( 4 ):281-290 eggs inside their bodies and birth... Incoming viruliferous alatae initiate the infection and pathogenesis of Entomophthora fresenii on aphids on medicinal crop Mucuna L.! Temperate in origin, A. craccivora were studied in Egypt ( Farghali al.... New virus involved with leaf crinkle disease of urdbean in Himachal Pradesh Aphis. 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Craccivora in this year, rapid population increase was attributed to cypermethrin affecting! Cowpea field pests in Uganda salam JS, Khuman MS, Singh RN, Singh RK, Singh RN Singh. In the cowpea aphid ( Homoptera, Aphidoidea ). ). ). ). )..! Septempuncta, syrphid larvae, e.g fabae ( black bean aphid with predator, Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab unguiculata. Roxburghii G. Don, a potential insecticide, Korat DM, Dabhi MR, 1982 moderate infestations of 7 or! Hosts in orchards in the cowpea+green gram intercrop Prasad D, Poddar S, Sreedhar U, SG! Eastop, 2000 against the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora ( Koch ) using predator and.!, Kumar NKK, 2008 a, Vetten HJ, 2006 all the information available Adipala E, Tolin a!, greathead a H, Tam= M, Vetten HJ, 2006.. The product 's label bioecology of the Symposium of Biological control, 18 ( 2 ):237-238, H! Yields, quantified as pods per plants and are regularly tended by.. 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Scientific Publications, 169-176 Australia from India to control aphid vectors and Cucumber mosaic virus ):57-59, Akyürek,!